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Sunday, December 25, 2016

The Contents of Cattle Diseases and Conditions of Campylobacter infection (Vibriosis)



Campylobacter infection (Vibriosis)

  The NADIS data show that abortion and infertility remain significant problems on farm. One of the most important causes of infertility and abortion in UK cattle is infection by Campylobacter fetus. This organism can cause sporadic abortion, abortion storms, metritis, delayed return to heat, and very low pregnancy rates.

How do cows get infected?

Sporadic abortion, that is the one-off case, is probably associated with the bacteria getting in via the guts. However the vast majority of problems associated with Campylobacter are linked to venereal infection. In most cases the source of infection is an infected mature bull bought onto the farm, which then spreads the bacteria as it mates. The most high-risk animal is a hire bull. Younger bulls and breeding females are less common sources of infection but any animal that has been previously mated is a potential source.

In bulls, infection is not associated with clinical signs, problems with Campylobacter are exclusive to the female

Clinical signs

  • Mild endometritis
  • Failure to conceive .. Return to service at normal time
  • Early embryonic death .. Delayed return to service
  • Late embryonic death .. Abortion (usually 4 to 5 months)
     Cows (but not bulls) readily become immune to infection, so quite often Campylobacter is first seen as a problem after the introduction of a bull, which resolves itself over the period of a few months. However, heifers served by the bull for the first time remain susceptible and immunity is often not protective for more than one year. Additionally the bacterium can be found in vaginal mucous for more than a year after infection even after the development of immunity. Such cows are good sources of infection for new uninfected bulls Diagnosis
  • Campylobacter can be isolated from aborted fetuses and fetal membranes – the bacterium is found in about 3% of abortion cases in which a diagnosis is made.
  • Most commonly Campylobacter is suspected when there are high return rates or poor pregnancy rates in a herd using natural service. However, proving the role of Campylobacter can be difficult as we have no test which has a sufficiently low rate of false negatives
  • Sheath washing of bulls followed by culture in the laboratory is the best available method of identifying infected bulls. However, although a positive test

    is a useful indication of infection, a negative result is not; the test is insensitive and does not pick up all infected bulls
  • Identifying infected cows is more difficult. Culture of vaginal mucus is less sensitive than culture of sheath washings so more infected cows will be missed. If you suspect Campylobacter get your vet to collect samples from at least 12 cows served by the suspect bull or bulls as this will significantly increase the chances of finding the bacterium.

Treatment

In cows treatment is not very effective, and, particularly because diagnosis is often made in the late stage of the disease, it is usually best to wait for natural immunity to eliminate the disease. Routine treatment of bulls bought onto a farm can reduce (but NOT eliminate) the risk of them spreading disease.

Control

In infected herds stop using natural service until at least two years after initial infection began. If oestrus detection is a problem then synchronisation with fixed time AI should be used. Vaccination is extremely effective n the control of Campylobacter, however no authorised vaccines are available in the UK. For severe problems your vet can get an autogenous vaccine made up which can be used on your herd only.

Prevention


As there are no authorised vaccines available in the UK, prevention is based on maximising biosecurity. In an uninfected herd maintaining a closed herd will prevent disease, but if this is not possible then a buying policy of purchasing virgin heifers and bulls only will not significantly increase the risk. If a bull has to be bought the best policy is the younger the better. If you have to buy in a mature bull, treat it with antibiotics before it is used to mate cows and use it on a small number of cows only so that its fertility can be monitored before it is used for service in the main herd

Saturday, December 24, 2016

JIKWAMUE NA MAISHA MAGUMU KWA UFUGAJI RAHISI WA KUKU




Utangulizi

   Ufugaji wa kuku ni njia rahisi ya kujipatia kipato na lishe bora kwa kaya nyingi za vijijini.
Hii ni kutokana na ukweli kwamba:
• Ufugaji hauhitaji mtaji mkubwa kuuanzisha.
• Ni rahisi kuusimamia.
• Faida inapatikana mapema.
• Mali ghafi nyingi zinazohitajika zinapatikana kwa urahisi katika mazingira ya vijijini.
• Kwa kipindi cha hivi karibuni, uzoefu unaonyesha kuwa soko la kuku wa kienyeji
linakua na linaelekea kwenye kutokutosheleza wateja.

       Pamoja na kuwepo kwa fursa hii nzuri ya kujikwamua kiuchumi, bado haijatumika kikamilifu.
Changamoto kubwa iliyopo ni namna ya kudhibiti na kutibu magonjwa ya kuku. Wafugaji
wa kuku wanapokuwa wameanza kuona matokeo mazuri ya shughuli hii wengi urudishwa
nyuma na kuvunjwa moyo kuendelea kutokana na hasara zinazotokana na magonjwa.
Tatizo hili limeendelea kwa sababu ya:
• Kushindwa kuyatambua vizuri magongwa.
• Kutofahamu njia za kuyadhibiti kwa chanjo na kwa njia nyinginezo hata za asili.
• Kutofahamu tiba sahihi ya magonjwa hayo.
• Kutofahamu taratibu za ufugaji zinazoweza kupunguza matukio ya magonjwa.

       Madhumuni ya makala hii ni kumpa mfugaji mwongozo aweze kutambua dalili za magonjwa
mbali mbali ya kuku kwa kina na jinsi ya kuyakinga na kuyatibu. Hatimaye aweze kuwa
msaada kwa wafugaji wengine.

Mambo yafuatayo yataelezwa katika mfululizo wa makala hii:

• Magonjwa ya kuku yanayotokana na virusi.
• Magonjwa ya kuku yanayotokana na bakteria.
• Magonjwa ya kuku yanayotokana na protozoa.
• Wadudu wasumbufu katika kuku.
• Chanjo muhimu kwa kuku.
• Kanuni muhimu za kudhibiti magonjwa.

Tiba na chanjo dhidi ya magonjwa ya kuku

      Afya ya kuku huweza kuathiriwa na magonjwa ya aina nyingi, wadudu tofauti na lishe duni
ambavyo husababisha hasara kwa mfugaji yasipodhibitiwa au kutibiwa mapema. Hasara
hizo ni pamoja na gharama za matibabu, kushuka kwa utagaji mayai, kudumaa na hata vifo.
Sura hii itazingatia zaidi kueleza magonjwa na wadudu pamoja na athari za lishe duni katika
uzalishaji wa kuku wa asili.

Dalili za kuku Mgonjwa

Dalili za ujumla za kuku mgonjwa ni kama zifuatazo:-
• Kuzubaa
• Kupoteza hamu ya kula
• Kujitenga na wenzake katika kundi
• Kujikunyata
• Kupunguza au kusimama kutaga
Kumbuka:

Ukiona dalili moja au zaidi ya hizi muone mtaalam wa mifugo
aliye karibu.

Magonjwa ya kuku
Magonjwa yanayoweza kuathiri kuku ni mengi. Magonjwa hayo yamegawanyika katika
makundi tofauti kutegemeana na kisababishi chake. Vyanzo vya magonjwa ni virusi,
bakteria, protozoa, minyoo, wadudu wa aina mbali mbali na upungufu wa virutubisho
kwenye chakula cha kuku na uchafu.
Maelezo katika sehemu inayofuata yanafafanua magonjwa mbalimbali ya kuku katika
mtiririko ufuatao:
Magonjwa yanayosababishwa na virusi, bakteria, protozoa, minyoo, viroboto chawa,
utitiri nk., lishe duni na uchafu.


Leo nitazungumzia baadhi ya magonjwa yanayosababishwa na virusi

Kwa kawaida, magonjwa yanayosababishwa na virusi hayatibiki.
Hivyo njia pekee ya kukabiliana nayo ni kwa kuchanja ili kuyadhibiti kabla hayajatokea.
Ikitokea kuku wakaugua magonjwa yanayosababishwa na virusi, unachotakiwa kufanyika ni kutibu madhara yanayotokana na ugonjwa wenyewe kama itakavyofafanuliwa katika maelezo yafuatayo:

Mdondo/Kideri

        Ugonjwa unaosumbua sana wafugaji wa kuku ni Mdondo na wengine huuita Kideri (new
castle disease). Chanzo cha ugonjwa huu ni virusi. Ni ugonjwa unaoathiri kuku wa rika zote
na mara nyingi humaliza kuku wengi au wote vijijini.

Dalili za Mdondo ni:

• Kuku hukohoa
• Kuhema kwa shida
• Hushusha mbawa
• Kupoteza hamu ya kula, kuzubaa, kusinzia
• Manyoya kuvurugika
• Kuharisha kijani
• Kutokwa ute mdomoni na puani
• Kizunguzungu, shingo kujikunja, kurudi kinyumenyume, kupooza mabawa, kuanguka
chali, kupoteza fahamu na hatimaye kufa.
• Kuku wengi kwenye kundi hufa katika kipindi kifupi kwa kufikia asilimia 90 hadi 100.

Uenezaji wa ugonjwa huu ni kwa njia zifuatazo:

• Kinyesi cha kuku anayeumwa kikikanyagwa na miguu, magari, baiskeli na kuwafikia
kuku nwengine.
• Kwa njia ya hewa (kuvuta hewa yenye virusi ) au upepo waweza kusafirisha virusi.
• Mabaki ya kuku anayeumwa kama utumbo, manyoya n.k. visipozikwa vitaeneza
ugonjwa kwa kuku wazima kula mabaki hayo au wanyama watakaokula mabaki hayo
huweza kuyasambaza na kueneza ugonjwa.

Kudhibiti Mdondo


  • Kuchanja

Kwanza kabisa ni chanjo ya Mdondo.
Zipo aina tofauti za chanjo ya Mdondo. Lakini chanjo iliyo rahisi kutumiwa vijijini inaitwa I-2
Thermostable. Chanjo hii tofauti na chanjo nyingine nyingi inao uwezo wa kustahimili joto.
Hutolewa kwa njia ya kuku kudondoshewa tone moja la dawa katika jicho moja tu. Hii ni dozi
kamili kwa kuku wa umri wowote.


Utaratibu wa kuchanja kwa dawa ya I – 2 Thermostable

• Mdondo hauna tiba kwa hiyo unakingwa kwa chanjo
Kuku wachanjwe mara baada ya kutotolewa bila kusubiri mzunguko au ratiba ya
chanjo inayofuata katika eneo husika.
• Kuku wachanjwe kila baada ya miezi mitatu bila kukosa. Kama unayo kalenda weka
alama kwenye tarehe za kuchanja ili uweze kufanya maandalizi mapema ya upatikanaji
wa dawa.
• Kuku wachanjwe angalau mwezi mmoja kabla ya mlipuko wa ugonjwa . Kwa kawaida
wafugaji wanafahamu miezi ya mlipuko ya ugonjwa huu katika maeneo yao.
• Angalia sana uchanje kuku ambao hawajaambukizwa. Kuku akiishaugua chanjo
haitasaidia bali itaongeza kasi ya ugonjwa.
• Japo chanjo ya I-2 Thermostable, ni muhimu ihifadhiwe sehemu kavu na yenye
ubaridi wa kawaida isipate joto, la sivyo itaharibika na haitafaa tena kwa chanjo. Pia
unaposafirisha dawa hii tumia chombo amacho hakitaruhusu dawa kupata joto. Vile
vile wakati wa kuchanja shughuli hii ifanyie kivulini dawa isipate mionzi ya jua.

Njia nyingine za kudhibiti Mdondo

- Banda na vyombo vyote vinavyotumika ndani ya banda.viwe safi wakati wote.
- Tenga kuku wageni kwa muda wa wiki 2 na kuwachanja kabla ya kuwachanganya na
kuku wenyeji.

Choma mizoga inayoweza kuletwa kwenye eneo lako.
- Usiruhusu watu kuingia hovyo kwenye banda, ikibidi kuingia watumie viatu ulivyotenga
kuingilia bandani kwako Kutoruhusu watu kuingia kwenye banda ovyo.
Kudhibiti mdondo usienee kutoka vijiji vingine na ndani ya kundi lako:
- Katika kipindi cha mlipuko wa ugonjwa huu epuka kununua kuku minadani na
kutoka sehemu zenye ugonjwa huu.
- Kuku wako wakiugua Mdondo tenganisha wale waliougua ili wasiwaambukize
walio wazima.
- Kumbuka kuku akiishaugua usimchanje bali mtenge na mpatie chakula na
maji na sehemu nzuri ya kupumzikia.
- Kuku aliyekufa kwa Mdondo azikwe au achomwe
- Kuku aliyechinjwa baada ya kuugua sehemu zake ambazo hazikutumika
kama mifupa, utumbo n.k . vizikwe vyote.
- Kuku wengi wakifa kwa ugonjwa huu usilete kuku wengine katika eneo au
banda lako hadi angalau upite mwezi mmoja.


Itaendea....

Credit: RLDC na Uboreshaji wa Maisha Vijijini


Mawasiliano
0753226538/0719507240 (Afisa Mifugo)

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