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Friday, December 9, 2011

Tribute to Tanzania to fulfill 50 years of independence, but ... nausea allowance for MPs is very dangerous. I certainly I refuse


Today tanzania fulfills the 50 years since founds its independence from England and before that had been dominated by German and then in the second war world german lost colonies all and Tanganyika We fell into the hands of England, where the peace were committed to us over the official date as of today in 1961 . tanzania in this life has made its challenges as famine, war, and disasters such as accidents  etc................. 
and in the range of life yet we move forward to where we are hardy, but in every success there no one defects and today with the recognition of the importance of our leaders I speak to the issue of increase in allowances of members of our there are those legislators who care about their stomachs and their minds do not know that there are millions of Tanzania live life and low life very difficult. But he surprised the man I know from where to charm you think he comes from hell and then don't think debt that teachers claim governmental debt that the government owes to workers range does not see a salary inferior to the doctor today do not see a salary less the teacher of today, but they think their stomachs and they do not see even embarrassing to say the word the presence of citizens with a poor economy very heartening and it does not matter if I now read for the funding of government but cry and citizen lowly who I believe most of the ones who put them in power again if they gave them promises a lot of lies and now they come and cry out their stomachs regardless that the salaries are given the taxation of citizens, the situation is still fragile to prepare a neutral ground, including the cost of living they want to exploit citizen again under the same allowance to recompense them for sleep and slumber only to Parliament. 
me and by country many know it is painful and certainly reaches stage to say that I have my great authority would put in all that waste bills for stupid like this to benefit the intestines of a few people while millions will weaken them perishing in anguish misery and hunger. while they are eating duck and celebrates and this I believe gives a curse for those who want the program to whoever approved this plan and to this union any  political party from supporting arguments like this no reason to continue to vote for them and a lot for me I will give for mischief by these thugs the pen.
 as true leaders of this country want peace was achieved and the public continue to grow in the faith and their governments must foolish things like this avoid at all and those opponents are deceit who cried on stage indeed hour by hour the situation is bad, then they agree this I told them that we have been deceived and now even you are you pretending you are fighting for the rights of Tanzanians and yet are deceit bosses do not expect to get our vote in the next elections, and continue to say that those greedy ones selfish cutting should be given an allowance over and amazingly there are doctors and teachers and staff at others but forgotten because of greed only member adult and his mind goes out and say either offer a bill to brand simply be raised allowances and he will sit endorsed know all he offended the people of Tanzania and sin against God, and indeed this sin will burning you all robbers last day and they think that Tanzanians can all forgive sin like this.
i congratulate all Tanzanians to where we are but together should show unstable medical teachers bark bark bark and other workers and also students who push the bark into the classes they want to exploit the land and these thugs mischievous pen without wanting to destroy this country because of their bowels. God Bless Tanzania and its people these defects of pen robbers were getting the blessings. GOD bless me no matter what but mus all exploiters resign.no way...
GO TO HELL ALL EXPLOITERS......

Tuesday, December 6, 2011

THE FUNNERAL OF MR. EBBO ARUSHA YESTERDAY. MATUKIO KATIKA PICHA.

HAPA MWILI WA MAREHEMU MR. EBBO UKIAGWA KANISANI ARUSHA JANA

BAADHI YA NDUGU WANCHI WA JIJI LA ARUSHA JANA WAKIWA KATIKA MSURURU MREFU KUELEKEA KATIKA MAZISHI YA MR. EBBO.

HII NI STUDIO YAKE AMBAYO MARANYINGI WAKATI NIPO TANGA NYUMBANI NILIKUWA NAPENDA SAN KWENDA KWA AJILI YA MAMB MBALIMBALI YA MUZIKI.

BAADHI YA WATU WAKISUBIRI MAZISHI YA MR. EBBO.

PUNZIKA KWA AMANI MR. EBBO TULIKUPENDA ILA MUNGU ALIKUPENDA ZAIDI.

HUYU NI HAYATI MR. EBBO AKIWA KATIKA JENEZA TAYARI KWA MAZISHI YAKE YALIYOFANYIKA JANA MOKANI ARUSHA.

Saturday, December 3, 2011

REST IN PEACE MR. EBBO Age musician cry ONLY Maasai cultural even in his songs



can be reached on someone to get a blow of the loss of someone close, but the artist this new generation of me was like a brother because I was with him in ushwahiba the past when I am to wander when I read I have a tendency to go kisosora clad studio its motika record and I was I am very glad to be around because I was very like the Maasai culture gap his death has been a great many things, but someone who will charge more for Maasai culture as mr. Ebbo not think will happen. I got good information from a single source of information follows the Citizen brother.Dark clouds hung over the Bongo Flava industry this weekend.This is after it was announced that Bongo Flava rapper Abel Loshilaa Motika, aka Mr Ebbo, was dead.  He was 37
.According to sources close to the family, the rapper who became famous for his hit song Mi Mmasai, died on Thursday night at Mission Usa River Hospital in Arusha after a long spell of illness. The rapper reportedly succumbed to leukemia after a long battle with the disease.

The news of his death has left the entertainment industry reeling in shock as the topic became one of the most trending issues on the social networks in the country.Mr Ebbo whose musical talents were nurtured at Kisosora Lutheran Church as a choir member did much of his work in Tanga under his label Motika Records.

He is survived by a widow and two daughters. According to family sources, burial arrangements are underway at his Arusha home and the singer is expected to be laid to rest on Monday at his home village.

Messages of tribute were pouring in with close associate Fred Mariki aka Mkoloni saying Mr Ebbo was a hardworking artiste who was also creative and had a vision for Bongo’s rap music. “It is rather shocking to hear of his death and to say the least I am at a loss for words,” he said. Master Jay of the MJ Studios in Dar es Salaam said the news was devastating, adding that he was sad given the fact that the late Mr Ebbo was full of energy and dreams.


“I met him once when he came to work at my studios but you could see that he had the desire to work hard,” said the producer. The rapper rose to fame in early 2000 when Bongo Flava was just beginning to gain roots in Tanzania and East Africa in general, with his unique style which was driven by the Maasai intonation of Kiswahili.

Dressed in traditional garb, he always left audiences spellbound with hits such as Bado, Kamongo and Mimi Mmasai. In most of his compositions, which were recorded at his Motika Studios,  the lanky Mr Ebbo was proud of his Maasai roots, a feat that won him several admirers beyond Tanzania’s boundaries.

His political, economic and social conscience won him great praise that in 2003 he was signed by the government to head a campaign on the virtues of privatisation.

The campaign was aimed at educating the public about the benefits of privatisation in Tanzania. The efforts saw Mr Ebbo record a single, Ubinaf-sishaji, which translates as privatisation.

Sunday, November 27, 2011

Learn Entrepreneurship and self - employed, lead your life...



 What is Entrepreneurship?: An entrepreneur is an individual who owns a firm, business, or venture, and is responsible for its development. Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting a new business or reviving an existing business, in order to capitalize on new found opportunities.
Generally, entrepreneurship is a tough proposition as a good number of the new businesses fail to take off. Entrepreneurial activities differ based on the type of business they are involved in. It is also true that entrepreneurial ventures create a number of new job opportunities. A large number of entrepreneurial projects look for venture capital or angel funding for their startup firms in order to finance their capital requirements. Besides, government agencies and some NGOs also finance entrepreneurial ventures.
Entrepreneurship is often associated with uncertainty, particularly when it involves creating something new for which there is no existing market. Even if there is a market, it may not translate into a huge business opportunity for the entrepreneur. A major aspect in entrepreneurship is that entrepreneurs embrace opportunities irrespective of the resources they have access to.
Entrepreneurship involves being resourceful and finding ways to obtain the resources required to achieve the set objectives. Capital is one such resource. Entrepreneurs need to think out-of-the-box to improve their chances of obtaining what they need to succeed. According to management experts, vast majority of entrepreneurs desire to be in control of their own life and they can’t find this beyond entrepreneurship. Studies have demonstrated that people derive great satisfaction from their entrepreneurial work.
A number of entrepreneurs are of the opinion that managing their own business offers far greater security than being an employee elsewhere. They feel entrepreneurship enables them to acquire wealth quickly and cushion themselves against financial insecurity. Additionally, an entrepreneur’s future is not at peril owing to the faulty decisions of a finicky employer. So, while some people feel that being employed is less risky, entrepreneurs feel that they are better off starting a business of their own.
Today, there is the increasing awareness about entrepreneurship. People aren’t confining themselves to one business. They are following one business with another. Such entrepreneurs are referred to as “serial entrepreneurs.” Sometimes these entrepreneurs become angel investors and invest their money in startup companies. As a person gains greater insight into business and entrepreneurship, his chances of succeeding in business improve.
  many people have self employed through Entrepreneur such as.

Saturday, November 19, 2011

THE RISE AND FALL OF Adolf Hitler..


The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich is a 1960 non-fiction book by William L. Shirer chronicling the general history of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. The book is based upon captured Third Reich documents, the available diaries of propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, General Franz Halder, and of the Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano, evidence and testimony from the Nuremberg trials, British Foreign Office reports, and the author’s recollections of six years’ of Third Reich reportage, for newspapers, the United Press International (UPI), and CBS Radio, ended by Nazi Party censorship in 1940. In 1961, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich earned a National Book Award, and was adapted to television as a sort of miniseries and broadcast by the American Broadcasting Company network in 1968. Three hours long, the program was telecast one hour a night over three nights.
Part II of our Hitler History
The Triumph of Hitler - The pre-war years of Nazi Germany, 1933-39.
Part III of our Hitler History
The Defeat of Hitler - Quest for a Nazi Empire, 193

Saturday, November 12, 2011

MOUNT KILIMANJARO:- THE MAGIC/ WONDERFUL MOUNTAINS IN AFRICA AND IN THE WORLD.


Elevation (feet): 19340
Elevation (meters): 5895
Continent: Africa
Country: Tanzania
Region: Kilimanjaro Tanzania
SubRange: Northeast Tanzania
Latitude: -3.06667
Longitude: 37.35
Difficulty: Walk up
Best months for climbing: January, February, March, June, July, August, December
Year first climbed: 1889
First successful climber(s): Hans Meyer, L. Purtscheller
Convenient Center: Marangu via Moshi, Tanzania
Nearest major airport: Kilimanjaro International Airport (KIA), Tanzania
Kilimanjaro is composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo 5,895 m (19,341 ft); Mawenzi 5,149 m (16,893 ft); and Shira 3,962 m (13,000 ft). Uhuru Peak is the highest summit on Kibo's crater rim.
Kilimanjaro is a giant stratovolcano that began forming a million years ago, when lava spilled from the Rift Valley zone. Two of its three peaks, Mawenzi and Shira, are extinct while Kibo (the highest peak) is dormant and could erupt again. The last major eruption has been dated to 360,000 years ago, while the most recent activity was recorded just 200 years ago.
Kilimanjaro. The name itself is a mystery wreathed in clouds. It might mean Mountain of Light, Mountain of Greatness or Mountain of Caravans. Or it might not. The local people, the Wachagga, don't even have a name for the whole massif, only Kipoo (now known as Kibo) for the familiar snowy peak that stands imperious, overseer of the continent, the summit of Africa.
Kilimanjaro, by any name, is a metaphor for the compelling beauty of East Africa. When you see it, you understand why. Not only is this the highest peak on the African continent; it is also the tallest free-standing mountain in the world, rising in breathtaking isolation from the surrounding coastal scrubland – elevation around 900 metres – to an imperious 5,895 metres (19,336 feet).
Kilimanjaro is one of the world's most accessible high summits, a beacon for visitors from around the world. Most climbers reach the crater rim with little more than a walking stick, proper clothing and determination. And those who reach Uhuru Point, the actual summit, or Gillman's Point on the lip of the crater, will have earned their climbing certificates.
And their memories.
But there is so much more to Kili than her summit. The ascent of the slopes is a virtual climatic world tour, from the tropics to the Arctic.
Even before you cross the national park boundary (at the 2,700m contour), the cultivated footslopes give way to lush montane forest, inhabited by elusive elephant, leopard, buffalo, the endangered Abbot’s duiker, and other small antelope and primates. Higher still lies the moorland zone, where a cover of giant heather is studded with otherworldly giant lobelias.
Above 4,000m, a surreal alpine desert supports little life other than a few hardy mosses and lichen. Then, finally, the last vestigial vegetation gives way to a winter wonderland of ice and snow – and the magnificent beauty of the roof of the continent.

About Kilimanjaro National Park
Size: 1668 sq km 641 sq miles).
Location: Northern Tanzania, near the town of Moshi.
Getting there
128 km (80 miles) from Arusha.
About one hour’s drive from Kilimanjaro airport.
What to do
Six usual trekking routes to the summit and other more-demanding mountaineering routes.
Day or overnight hikes on the Shira plateau. Nature trails on the lower reaches.
Trout fishing.

Saturday, October 29, 2011

wonderful dog who lives with the child of monkeys

MAGIC DOG AND MAGIC MONKEY.

 One day I was in walking me in various villages I met with the occurrence of striking, which today has made me to write about. I met a dog who was living with a child of monkeys and every dog he was going to let the child, the monkeys had to climb up the back and neither the dog was no objections and it seems that the dog he had no betrayal at all and monkeys that although I understand that dogs and monkeys always do reconciled with the monkeys and dogs are enemies.
  good only now I get tired more when I see this charm that she suck the milk of a dog he nor the dog not have to worry at all I tried to beat the picture and was not terrified, but amazingly no one who was wondering more of us foreigners who have been there for the remote and iaoneka they were quite accustomed to see those creatures as well.
dog and monkey
  I have a question there is no harm he can get the monkeys if the dog will use the veil in her life? and if so, what and why as there is for monkeys and dogs are creatures who have no close ties. monkeys the best man I know would have milk bit compatible ... in the next article as I have a good chance that I will try to meet / communicate with doctors to see if there is any proble mya occur to those aminal. and so I may go as no harm can I find these creatures
another dog follow monkey and dog
waswahili wansema ukistaajabu ya musa utayaona ya firauni . haka ka dognimekamind ningekuwa na uwezo ningemchukua niishi nae nione mwisho wamaisha yao yangefikia wapi.....

by Steven Mruma..................

Saturday, October 22, 2011

REST IN PEACE MUAMMAR GADDAFI. THE IRON LEADER IN AFRICA.





NO ONE LIKE YOU GADDAFI

rest in peace muammar gaddafi
Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi[1] (Arabic: مُعَمَّر القَذَّافِيMuʿammar al-Qaḏḏāfī About this sound audio ;[variations] (7 June 1942[2] – 20 October 2011), commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi play /ˈm.əmɑr ɡəˈdɑːfi/ or Colonel Gaddafi, was the autocratic ruler[3][4] of Libya from 1969, when he seized power in a bloodless military coup, until 2011 when his government was overthrown in a civil war which consisted of a popular uprising aided by a foreign intervention. His 42-year rule prior to the uprising made him the fourth longest-ruling non-royal leader since 1900, as well as the longest-ruling Arab leader.[5] He variously styled himself as "the Brother Leader" and "Guide of the Revolution"; in 2008 a meeting of traditional African rulers bestowed on him the title "King of Kings".[6]
After seizing power in 1969, he abolished the Libyan Constitution of 1951 and civil liberties enshrined in it. He imposed laws based on the political ideology[7] he had formulated, called the Third International Theory and published in The Green Book.[8][9] Rising oil prices and extraction in Libya led to increasing revenues. By exporting as much oil per capita as Saudi Arabia, Libya achieved the highest living standards in Africa. However, at the same time similarly oil-rich Gulf countries improved their living standards much further, and this fact was visible to ordinary Libyans.[10][11] Early during his regime, Gaddafi and his relatives took over much of the economy. Gaddafi started several wars and acquired chemical weapons.[12] The United Nations called Libya under Gaddafi a pariah state.[13][14] In the 1980s, countries around the world imposed sanctions against Gaddafi.[15] Six days after the capture of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein in 2006 by United States troops,[16] Gaddafi renounced Tripoli's weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs and welcomed international inspections to verify that he would follow through on the commitment.[17] A leading advocate for a United States of Africa, he served as Chairperson of the African Union (AU) from 2 February 2009 to 31 January 2010.
In February 2011, following revolutions in neighbouring Egypt and Tunisia, protests against Gaddafi's rule began. These escalated into an uprising that spread across the country, with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing a government based in Benghazi named the National Transitional Council (NTC). This led to the 2011 Libyan Civil War, which included a military intervention by a NATO-led coalition to enforce a UN Security Council Resolution 1973 calling for a no-fly zone and protection of civilians in Libya. The assets of Gaddafi and his family were frozen, and both Interpol and the International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants on 27 June for Gaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam, and his brother-in-law Abdullah al-Senussi, concerning crimes against humanity.[1][18][19][20] Gaddafi and his forces lost the Battle of Tripoli in August, and on 16 September 2011 the NTC took Libya's seat at the UN, replacing Gaddafi.[21] He retained control over parts of Libya, most notably the city of Sirte, to which it was presumed that he had fled.[22] Although Gaddafi's forces initially held out against the NTC's advances, Gaddafi was captured as Sirte fell to the rebel forces on 20 October 2011, and shot dead soon after.
Muammar al-Gaddafi was raised in a bedouin tent in the desert near Sirte (Sidra). According to many biographies, his family belongs to a small tribe of Arabs, the Qadhadhfa. They are mostly herders that live in the Hun Oasis. According to Gaddafi, his paternal grandfather, Abdessalam Bouminyar, fought against the Italian occupation of Libya and died as the "first martyr in Khoms, in the first battle of 1911".[24] Gaddafi attended a Muslim elementary school far from home in Sabha, during which time he was profoundly influenced by major events in the Arab world. He was passionate about the success of the Palestinians and was deeply disappointed by their defeat by Israeli forces in 1948. He admired Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser and looked to him as a hero during his rise to power in 1952. In 1956 Gaddafi took part in anti-Israeli protests during the Suez Crisis.[25] In Sabha he was briefly a member of Scouting.[26] He finished his secondary school studies under a private tutor in Misrata, concentrating on the study of history.
Gaddafi entered the Libyan military academy at Benghazi in 1961, and graduated in 1966. Both towards the end of his course and after graduation, Gaddafi pursued further studies in Europe. False rumours have been propagated with regards to this part of his life, for example, that he attended the United Kingdom's Royal Military Academy Sandhurst.[27] He did in fact receive four months' further military training in the United Kingdom, and spent some time in London.[28][29] After this, as a commissioned officer he joined the Signal Corps.[30] Although often referred to as "Colonel Gaddafi", he was in fact only a Lieutenant when he seized power in 1969.[31] He was, nonetheless, a holder of the honorary rank of Major General, conferred upon him in 1976 by the Arab Socialist Union's National Congress. Gaddafi accepted the honorary rank, but stated that he would continue to be known as "Colonel" and to wear the rank insignia of a Colonel when in uniform.[32]

Libyan revolution of 1969

In Libya, as in a number of other Arab countries, admission to a military academy and a career as an army officer only became available to members of the lower economic strata after independence. A military career offered an opportunity for higher education, for upward economic and social mobility, and was for many the only available means of political action. For Gaddafi and many of his fellow officers, who were inspired by Nasser's brand of Arab nationalism, a military career was a revolutionary vocation.
As a cadet, Gaddafi associated with the Free Officers Movement. Most of his future colleagues on the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC) were fellow members of his graduating class at the military academy. The frustration and shame felt by Libyan officers by Israel's massive defeat of the Arab armies on three fronts in 1967 fuelled their determination to contribute to Arab unity by overthrowing the Libyan monarchy. An early conspirator, Gaddafi first started planning the overthrow of the monarchy while a cadet.
On 1 September 1969 a small group of junior military officers led by Gaddafi staged a bloodless coup d'état against King Idris of Libya while the king was in Turkey for medical treatment. Idris's nephew, Crown Prince Sayyid Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Sanussi, was formally deposed by the revolutionary army officers and put under house arrest; they abolished the monarchy and proclaimed the Libyan Arab Republic.[33]

Internal affair.


Gaddafi (left) with Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1969
On gaining power he immediately ordered the shutdown of American and British military bases, including Wheelus Air Base. He told Western officials that he would expel their companies from Libya's oil fields unless they shared more revenue. In his warning, he alluded to consultation with Nasser. The oil companies complied with the demand, increasing Libya's share from 50 to 79 percent.[34] In December 1969, Egyptian intelligence thwarted a planned coup against Gaddafi from high-ranking members of his leadership. Many of the dissenters had grown uneasy with his growing relationship to Egypt.[35] In response to the failed coup, Gaddafi criminalized all political dissent and shared power only with his family and closest associates.[citation needed]
Gaddafi committed ethnic cleansing, expelling Italian settlers in Libya in 1970.[36] Despising the Christian calendar, he replaced it as the country's official with an Islamic calendar.[37] He renamed the months of the calendar. August, named for Augustus Caesar, was renamed Hannibal, and July, after Julius Caesar, was renamed Nasser, for Gamal Abdel Nasser. From 1971 to 1977, Gaddafi approved the Arab Socialist Union, modeled on Egypt's Arab Socialist Union (Egypt), to function as a political party in Libya.[38]
Gaddafi increasingly devoted himself to "contemplative exile" over the next months,[7] caught up in apocalyptic visions of revolutionary pan-Arabism and Islam locked in a mortal struggle with what he termed the encircling, demonic forces of reaction, imperialism, and Zionism. As a result, routine administrative tasks fell to Major Jallud who became prime minister in place of Gaddafi in 1972. Two years later Jallud assumed Gaddafi's remaining administrative and protocol duties to allow Gaddafi to devote his time to revolutionary theorizing. Gaddafi remained the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and the effective head of state. The foreign press speculated about an eclipse of his authority within the RCC, but Gaddafi soon dispelled such theories by imposing measures to restructure Libyan society.

Elimination of dissent

In 1969, Gaddafi created Revolutionary committees to keep tight control over internal dissent. Ten to twenty percent of Libyans worked as informants for these committees. Surveillance took place in the government, in factories, and in the education sector.[39] People who formed a political party were executed, and talking about politics with foreigners was punishable by up to 3 years in jail.[citation needed] Arbitrary arrests were common and Libyans were hesitant to speak with foreigners.[40] The government conducted executions and mutilations of political opponents in public and broadcast recordings of the proceedings on state television. Dissent was illegal under Law 75 of 1973, which denied freedom of expression.[39][41] In 2010, Libya's press was rated as 160th out of 178 nations in the Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders.[42]
During the 1970s, Libya executed members of the Islamist fundamentalist Hizb-ut Tahrir faction, and Gaddafi often personally presided over the executions.[43][44] Libya faced internal opposition during the 1980s because of its highly unpopular war with Chad. Numerous young men cut off a fingertip to avoid conscription at the time.[45] A mutiny by the Libyan Army in Tobruk was violently suppressed in August 1980.[46]
From time to time Gaddafi responded to external opposition with violence. Between 1980 and 1987, Gaddafi employed his network of diplomats and recruits to assassinate at least 25 critics living abroad.[39][47] His revolutionary committees called for the assassination of Libyan dissidents living abroad in April 1980, sending Libyan hit squads abroad to murder them. On 26 April 1980 Gaddafi set a deadline of 11 June 1980 for dissidents to return home or be "in the hands of the revolutionary committees".[48] Gaddafi stated explicitly in 1982 that "It is the Libyan people's responsibility to liquidate such scums who are distorting Libya's image abroad."[49] Libyan agents have assassinated dissidents in the United States,[50] Europe,[51] and the Middle East.[39][49][52] As of 2004 Libya still provided bounties on critics, including $1 million for one journalist.[53] During the 2005 civil unrest in France, Gaddafi called Chirac and offered him his help in quelling the resistors, who were largely North African.[54] There are growing indications that Libya's Gaddafi-era intelligence service had a cozy relationship with western spy organizations including the CIA, who voluntarily provided information on Libyan dissidents to the regime in exchange for using Libya as a base for extraordinary renditions.[55][56][57]
Following an abortive 1986 attempt to replace English with Russian as the primary foreign language in education,[58] English has been taught in recent years in Libyan schools from primary level, and students have access to English-language media.[59]

Campaign against Berber culture

Gaddafi often expressed an overt contempt for the Berbers, a non-Arab people of North Africa, and for their language, maintaining that the very existence of Berbers in North Africa is a myth created by colonialists. He adopted new names for Berber towns, and on official Libyan maps, referred to the Nafusa Mountains as the "Western mountains".[60] In a 1985 speech, he said of the Berber language, "If your mother transmits you this language, she nourishes you with the milk of the colonialist, she feeds you their poison" (1985).[61] The Berber language was banned from schools and up until 2009, it was illegal for parents to name their children with Berber names.[62] Berbers living in ancient mud-brick caravan towns such as Ghadames were forced out and moved into modern government-constructed apartments in the 1980s.[7] During the 2011 civil war, Berber towns rebelled against Gaddafi's rule and sought to reaffirm their ancient identity as Berbers.[63][64][65] Gaddafi's government strengthened anti-Berber sentiment among Libyan Arabs, weakening their opposition.[66]

Economy

Libya enjoys large natural resources, but the high gross domestic product was concentrated on Gaddafi's family and his elites, who amassed vast fortunes.[67] Most of the business enterprises were controlled by Gaddafi and his family.[68] Meanwhile, a large section of the population lives in poverty. One of the worst situations is in the eastern parts of the country.[69][70]
When the rising international oil prices began to raise Gaddafi's revenues in the 1970s, Gaddafi spent much of the revenues on arms purchases and on sponsoring his political projects abroad.[71] Gaddafi's relatives adopted lavish lifestyles, including luxurious homes, Hollywood film investments and private parties with American pop stars.[72][73]
The Economy of Libya was centrally planned and followed Gaddafi's socialist ideals. It benefited greatly from revenues from the petroleum sector, which contributed practically all export earnings and 30% of its GDP. These oil revenues, combined with a small population and by far Africa's highest Education Index gave Libya the highest nominal GDP per capita in Africa. Between 2000 and 2011, Libya recorded favourable growth rates with an estimated 10.6 percent growth of GDP in 2010, the highest of any state in Africa. Gaddafi had promised "a home for all Libyans" and during his rule, new residential areas rose in empty Saharan regions. Entire populations living in mud-brick caravan towns were moved into modern homes with running water, electricity, and satellite TV.[7] A leaked diplomatic cable describes Libyan economy as "a kleptocracy in which the government — either the al-Gaddafi family itself or its close political allies — has a direct stake in anything worth buying, selling or owning".[20]


At the time Gaddafi died, some of the worst economic conditions were in the eastern parts of the state.[69][70] The sewage facilities in Banghazi were over 40 years old, and untreated sewage flowed into ground and coast.[11] 97% of urban dwellers have access to "improved sanitation facilities" in Libya, this was 2% points lower than the OECD average, or 21% points above the world average.[74] In the first 15 years of Gaddafi rule, the number of doctors per 1000/citizens increased by seven times, with the number of hospital beds increasing by three times.[75] During Gaddafi's rule, infant mortality rates went from 125/1000 live births, about average for Africa at the time, to 15.04/1000, the best rate in Africa.[76] Libyans who could afford it often had to seek medical care in neighboring countries such as Tunisia and Egypt because of lack of decent medical care in Libya.

Sunday, October 16, 2011

HISTORY OF JULIUS KAMBARAGE NYERERE ( FATHER OF TANZANIA)


Julius Kambarage Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian politician who served as the first President of Tanzania and previously Tanganyika, from the country's founding in 1961 until his retirement in 1985.
Born in Tanganyika to Nyerere Burito (1860–1942), Chief of the Zanaki, Nyerere was known by the Swahili name Mwalimu or 'teacher', his profession prior to politics.He was also referred to as Baba wa Taifa (Father of the Nation). Nyerere received his higher education at Makerere University in Kampala and the University of Edinburgh. After he returned to Tanganyika, he worked as a teacher. In 1954, he helped form the Tanganyika African National Union.
In 1961, Nyerere was elected Tanganyika's first Prime Minister, and following independence, in 1962, the country's first President. In 1964, Tanganyika became politically united with Zanzibar and was renamed to Tanzania. In 1965, a one-party election returned Nyerere to power. Two years later, he issued the Arusha Declaration, which outlined his socialist vision of ujamaa that came to dominate his policies.
Nyerere retired in 1985, while remaining the In 1985 Nyerere gave up the Presidency but remained as chair of the Party - Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM). He gradually withdrew from active politics, retiring to his farm in Butiama. In 1990 he relinquished his chairmanship of CCM but remained active on the world stage as Chair of the Intergovernmental South Centre. One of his last high profile actions was as the chief mediator in the Burundi conflict (in 1996). He died in a London hospital of leukaemia on October 14, 1999.chairman of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi. He died of leukemia in London in 1999. In 2009, Nyerere was named "World Hero of Social Justice" by the president of the United Nations General Assembly.
Kambarage Nyerere was born on 13 April 1922 in the town of Butiama in Tanganyika's Mara Region. He was one of 26 children of Nyerere Burito (1860–1942), Chief of the Zanaki. He began attending Government Primary School in Musoma at the age of 12 where he completed the four year programme in three years and went on to Tabora Government School in 1937. He later described Tabora School as being "as close to Eton as you can get in Africa." In 1943 he was baptised as a Catholic, taking the baptismal name of Julius. He received a scholarship to attend Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. Here he founded the Tanganyika Welfare Association, which eventually merged with the Tanganyika African Association (TAA), which had been formed in 1929. Nyerere received his teaching Diploma in 1947. He returned to Tanganyika and worked for 3 years at St. Mary's Secondary School in Tabora, where he taught Biology and English. In 1949 he got a government scholarship to attend the University of Edinburgh and was the first Tanganyikan to study at a British university. He obtained an undergraduate Master of Arts degree in Economics and History in 1952. In Edinburgh he encountered Fabian thinking and began to develop his particular vision of connecting socialism with African communal living.

Post-presidential activity

After the Presidency, Nyerere remained the Chairman of CCM until 1990 when Ali Hassan Mwinyi took over. Nyerere remained vocal about the extent of corruption and corrupt officials during the Mwinyi administration. He also blocked Jakaya Kikwete's nomination for the presidency, citing that he was too young to run a country. Nyerere was instrumental in getting Benjamin Mkapa elected (Mkapa had been Minister of Foreign Affairs for a time during Nyerere's administration). Kikwete later became president in 2005.
Nyerere's portrait on the Tanzanian 1000 shilling note
In one of his famous speeches during the CCM general assembly, Nyerere said in Swahili "Ninang'atuka", meaning that he was pulling out of politics for good. He kept to his word that Tanzania would be a democratic country. He moved back to his childhood home village of Butiama in northern Tanzania. During his retirement, he continued to travel the world meeting various heads of government as an advocate for poor countries and especially the South Centre institution. Nyerere travelled more widely after retiring than he did when he was president of Tanzania. One of his last high-profile actions was as the chief mediator in the Burundi conflict in 1996. He died in a London hospital of leukaemia on 14 October 1999.
Positions Held after Presidency: Chairman of Chama Cha Mapinduzi (1985–1990), Chairman of the independent International South Commission (1987–1990), and Chairman of the South Centre in the Geneva & Dar es Salaam Offices (1990–1999).

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