Friday, December 3, 2010
UFAHAMU UGONJWA MA MARALIA AMBAO NDIO UNAOUA WATU WENGI PIA KULIKO HATA UKIMWI [OGOPA UKIMWI LAKINI USISAHAU NA MRALIA NAYO INAUA..
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by a eukaryotic protist of the genus Plasmodium. It is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas (22 countries), Asia, and Africa. Each year, there are more than 250 million cases of malaria, killing between one and three million people, the majority of whom are young children in sub-Saharan Africa. Ninety percent of malaria-related deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria is commonly associated with poverty, and can indeed be a cause of poverty and a major hindrance to economic development.
Five species of the plasmodium parasite can infect humans: the most serious forms of the disease are caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae causes milder disease in humans that is not generally fatal. A fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi, is a zoonosis that causes malaria in macaques but can also infect humans.
It is naturally transmitted by the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito. When a mosquito bites an infected person, a small amount of blood is taken, which contains malaria parasites. These develop within the mosquito, and about one week later, when the mosquito takes its next blood meal, the parasites are injected with the mosquito's saliva into the person being bitten. After a period of between two weeks and several months (occasionally years) spent in the liver, the malaria parasites start to multiply within red blood cells, causing symptoms that include fever, and headache. In severe cases the disease worsens leading to hallucinations, coma, and death.
A wide variety of antimalarial drugs are available to treat malaria. In the last 5 years, treatment of P. falciparum infections in endemic countries has been transformed by the use of combinations of drugs containing an artemisinin derivative. Severe malaria is treated with intravenous or intramuscular quinine or, increasingly, the artemisinin derivative artesunate. Several drugs are also available to prevent malaria in travellers to malaria-endemic countries (prophylaxis). Resistance has developed to several antimalarial drugs, most notably chloroquine.
Malaria transmission can be reduced by preventing mosquito bites by distribution of inexpensive mosquito nets and insect repellents, or by mosquito-control measures such as spraying insecticides inside houses and draining standing water where mosquitoes lay their eggs.
Although many are under development, the challenge of producing a widely available vaccine that provides a high level of protection for a sustained period is still to be met.
Appearance Periodicity Persistent in liver? Plasmodium vivax
The treatment of malaria depends on the severity of the disease. Uncomplicated malaria is treated with oral drugs. Whether patients who can take oral drugs have to be admitted depends on the assessment and the experience of the clinician. Severe malaria requires the parenteral administration of antimalarial drugs. The traditional treatment for severe malaria has been quinine but there is evidence that the artemisinins are also superior for the treatment of severe malaria. A large clinical trial is currently under way to compare the efficacy of quinine and artesunate in the treatment of severe malaria in African children.
Active malaria infection with P. falciparum is a medical emergency requiring hospitalization. Infection with P. vivax, P. ovale or P. malariae can often be treated on an outpatient basis. Treatment of malaria involves supportive measures as well as specific antimalarial drugs. Most antimalarial drugs are produced industrially and are sold at pharmacies. However, as the cost of such medicines are often too high for most people in the developing world, some herbal remedies (such as Artemisia annua tea) have also been developed, and have gained support from international organisations such as Médecins Sans Frontières. When properly treated, a patient with malaria can expect a c
tertian yes Plasmodium ovale
Written and Posted by Dr. TS. Mruma at Friday, December 03, 2010