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Friday, December 31, 2010

JE MWAKA MPYA UNAMAANISHA NINI KWAKO JE UNAMALENGO GANI? JE ULITELEZA NA UTAREKEBISHA WAPI?


TAMBUA MWAKA MPYA NA NINI CHAKUFANYA KATIKA MWAKA HUU WA MABADILIKO 2011
Mwaka mpya ni siku ya kwanza ya mwaka na mara nyingi ni sherehe na nafasi ya watu kutakiana heri na baraka za mwaka mpya.

Katika tamaduni mbalimbali nafasi hii ni sikukuu moja au zaidi pasipo na kazi za kawaida.
Tarehe ya mwaka mpya inategemea kalenda yake:
katika sehemu kubwa ya dunia inayotumia kalenda ya Gregori ni 1 Januari
Uajemi, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan na Kashmir husheherekea mwaka mpya kufuatana na kalenda ya Kiajemi kwenye sikukuu ya Nouruz ambayo ni sikusare ya bubujiko inayotokea kati ya tarehe 20 - 21 Machi kwenye kalenda ya Gregori lakini kwao mwezi na mwaka mpya unaanza
Wachina na Wavietnam husheherekea mwaka mpya wakati wa mwezi mwandamu wa pili baada ya solistasi ya majira baridi na hii inacheza kati ya 21 Januari na 21 Februari.
Nchi ya Israeli na Wayahudi husheherekea mwaka mpya kufuatana na kalenda ya kiyahudi kwa jina la rosh hashana ambayo ni siku inayotokea kati ya Septemba na nusu ya kwanza ya Oktoba.
Waislamu na nchi ya Saudia huwa na mwaka mpya kufuatana na kalenda ya Kiislamu. Kalenda hii inafuata mwezi tu kwa hiyo sikuu zake huzunguka katika mwaka wa jua.
Sikukuu ya Diwali inasheherekewa na jumuiya kadhaa pia kama mwaka mpya.
Nje ya mahesabu haya kuna kalenda nyingine zisizoanzisha mwaka kwa sherehe. Mifano ni:
mwaka wa shule
mwaka wa biashara ambako hesabu mpya inaanzishwa
mwaka wa kanisa ambayo katika sehemu kubwa ya Ukristo unaanza kwenye jumapili ya Adventi (majilio) ya kwanza. kwa ufupi unaweza ukatambua kuwa mwaka mpya unamaana gani kwako na kwa ujumla wake lazima utambue kila unachopaswa kufanya kila mwaka na hayo ndio malengo yanayo leta mafannikio katika maisha kubali changamoto songa mbele
 NACHUKUA NAFASI HII KUKUTAKIA HERI YA MWAKA MPYA NA MUNGU AUONGOZE MWAKA WAKO UWE NA MAFANIKIO YALIOTUKUKA MBELE YA MUUMBA WAKO ....
 PIGANIA MAISHA YAKO AMINI DAIMA UTASHINDA...... NA USHINDI NI LAZIMA...

Thursday, December 30, 2010

UZINDUZI WA ALBAMU YA TID WAFUNIKA ZOTE ZA 2010 KAMA ULIKOSA BASI USIKOSE ALBAMU HII YA MFANO.


hapa walioshirikishwa katika wimbo uliobeba jina la albamu wa sifai.
mwanaume wa shoka alieonja ladha ya jela
Kama ulikua bado hujui haya nikwambiayo basi chukua hiyo  huyu ni masanii pekee wa mziki wakizazi kipya namaanisha bongo flava ambae amepitia hatua ya kiume ya kuonja japo kidogo ladha ya jela kama kwa akina 50%, lili wayne, akon nk. namkubali mimi pamoja na watanzania na mamilioni duniani kote na kilichofanya mpaka naamua kuandika makala hii ni uzinduzi wa albamu yake mpya ambao uzinduzi huo naweza nikasema ulikua ni moja kati ya uzinduzi bora kuliko yote ndani ya 2010 nilishuhudia wasanii kibao wakimpa shavu wakiwemo akina ngair, Kelvin mshindi wa big braza 2009 na wasanii wengine kibao na staili alionyoa ilikua ni ya kiubunifu na kama ilikua ya kiduku style laniki alizidi ubunifu na kuwa kivutio kikubwa sana ndani ya billicanas hakika kwangu hakuna kama TID AMBAE NDIE NINAYE MZUNGUMZIA HAPA
HISTORIA NA KIMUZIKI HASA ALIPOTOKA…..
TID katika pozi
Jina lake halisi ni Khalid Mohamed a.k.a TID yaani Top In Dar na si yeye anayejiita hivyo bali wapenzi wake TID  alisoma shule ya msingi Bunge na elimu ya sekondari alienda kuipatia pale Shaban Robert iliyopo ndani ya City la Dsm.
Hapa tid anaelezea historia yake kidogo kimuziki hasa alipotokea  |”nanukuu;;; Unajua tangu niko mdogo nilikuwa napenda sana kusikiliza pamoja na kujaribu kuimba nyimbo
mbali mbali....lakini baada ya kuwa mkubwa na kuanza kujishughulisha na shughuli hizi za muziki ndipo wazazi wangu waliponikumbusha kuwa fanii hii nilikuwa nikiipenda sana toka nipo bwana mdogo ile mbaya hapo ndipo nilipojua kuwa kipaji changu kilianzia mbali sana.

.....Ila nilianza kuimba rasmi mwaka 1996 nilipokuwa nipo shule pale Shaaban Robert nikiwa na wenzangu kama David a.k.a Wabaki, Saitana na Dingo Jango ambapo tulianzisha kundi letu lililoitwa Black Gangster na mara nyingi tulikuwa tukiperfom kwenye concerts za kishule na 'Talent Night ' ambazo tulishinda mara kibao. Yap mwaka 1998 tulirekodi albam iliyojulikana kwa jina la Mission Impossible iliyokuwa na nyimbo 12 na ambazo ziliimbwa kwa 'Ngeli' kimombo mzee hahaha. mwaka uliofuata yaani mwaka 1999 nilishirikishwa kwenye nyimbo ya 'Anza wewe' na kundi la Joint Mobb nyimbo ambayo ilikuwepo kwenye albam yao ya 'Kitinda Mimba'. Vilevile nimeshashirikishwa pia kundi la CBM Crew katika Track yao 'My Girl Friend' na mwaka 
hapa makamuzi ya uzinduzi na AY

2000 nikaanza rasmi maandalizi ya Albam yangu.
Mwaka 2001 Crazy GK akanishirikisha kwenye Track yake 'Tutakukumbuka' na 'Malaika' ambazo zote zinapatikana kwenye albam yake inayokwenda kwa jina la 'Nitakupa Nini Mama' na mwaka huo huo nikafeat na kundi la Taqwa ndani ya nyimbo Maovu na Bongo Chelea Pina na Bongo
Chelea pina ambayo inapatikana katika Compilation ya BNa mwaka huo wa 2001 ndio nikaingia mkataba kama Solo Artist na Studio ya Poa Records iliyo chini ya Producer Amit a.k.a Mental ambapo sasa narekodi albam yangu itakayokuja kwa jina la Sauti ya Dhahabu na itakuwa na jumla ya nyimbo 9 kati ya hizo ni pamoja na Mrembo, Zeze, Hii Mic, Ukweli na nyingine ambazo sitazitaja sasa hivi.ongo Records ya mwaka huo  huyu ndie tid kwa kifupi akielezea wapi hasa alipotoka hapa alikua akikaririwa na media moja hapa Tanzania
logo yake muhimu ya kiburudani
NA KAMA UKIKOSA ALBAMU YAKE UTAKUA UMEKOSA MAMBO MENGI SANA NA UTAKUA BADO HUSTAHILI KUWA MDAU WA MZIKI POPOTE DUNIANI PATA KOPY HALISI UINUE MZIKI WA BONGO NA UMUINUE NA TID KATIKA GEMU… PAMOJA SANA
STEVENN MRUMA

Thursday, December 23, 2010

KRISMASI SIKUKUU AMBAYO INAHISTORIA NDEFU SANA NA INAYOPEWA NAFASI KUBWA NA WAUMINI WA KIKRISTO DUNIANI..

NA HII NI HISTORIA FUPI YA SIKUU YA KRISMASI WAPI HASA ILIPOANZIA NA ILITOKANA NA NINI...

Krismasi

Krismasi (pia Noeli) ni sikukuu ambako Wakristo husheherekea kuzaliwa kwake Yesu Kristo zaidi ya miaka 2000 iliyopita. Kwa kawaida husheherekewa tarehe 25 Desemba katika Ukristo wa magharibi na tarehe 6 Januari katika ule wa mashariki  halisi ya kuzaliwa kwake Yesu haijulikani kwa sababu utamaduni wa Wayahudi wa wakati ule haukuwa na sherehe au kumbukumbu ya siku ya kuzaliwa.
Lakini baadaye Ukristo ulienea katika Dola la Roma na kati ya mataifa yaliyokuwa na kawaida ya kuzingatia siku ya kuzaliwa. Hivyo ilijitokeza hamu ya kusheherekea pia sikukuu ya kuzaliwa kwake Kristo. Ndiyo asili ya Sikukuu ya Krismasi.
Tangu mwanzo wa karne ya 3 BK kuna kumbukumbu ya waandishi mbalimbali waliojadili tarehe ya kuzaliwa kwake Yesu Kristo.
Habari za kwanza kabisa za makadirio ya tarehe ya kuzaliwa kwake Yesu zinapatikana kutoka Misri mnamo mwaka 200. Mwandishi Mkristo Klemens wa Alexandria (kitabu cha Stromateis I, xxi) alilalamikia udadisi wa wataalamu kadhaa wa Misri waliodai kwamba wamekadiria tarehe hiyo katika mwezi Mei, wengine katika Aprili. Alisema pia kuwa kikundi cha Kikristo cha wafuasi wa Basilides huko Misri walisheherekea Epifania pamoja na kuzaliwa kwake Yesu tarehe 6 Januari.
Labda kadirio la tarehe ya Desemba 25 pia lina asili katika Misri. Kuanzia mwaka 200 (kwa mara ya kwanza katika maandishi ya Sixtus Julius Africanus) tunasikia kwamba wataalamu wa Misri walifikiri tarehe 25 Machi ilikuwa tarehe ya kufa kwake Kristo na pia siku ya kuzaliwa kwake. Kwa kuongeza miezi tisa ya mimba inajitokeza 25 Desemba kama tarehe ya kuzaliwa.
Inaonekana tarehe 25 Desemba ilijitokeza wakati huo. Kuna taarifa ya mwaka 204 kutoka Ipolito wa Roma kwamba tarehe 25 Desemba ilikuwa sikukuu ya kuzaliwa kwake Yesu Kristo.
Wataalamu mbalimbali walidai kwamba Kanisa lilipachika sikukuu ya Kristo kwenye tarehe hiyo kwa nia ya kuchukua nafasi ya sikukuu ya jua kama mungu "Sol invictus". Lakini pengine mambo yalikwenda kinyume, yaani kwamba Makaisari walianzisha sikukuu hiyo halafu wakaipanga tarehe ya Krismasi ili kushindana na Ukristo uliokuwa bado chini ya dhuluma.
Aliyeingiza sikukuu ya Kuzaliwa Jua (Mitra) huko Roma ni Eliogabalus (kaisari kuanzia 218 hadi 222). Baadaye Aurelianus akaithibitisha rasmi mwaka 273, hatimate ikahamishiwa tarehe 25 Desemba. Wakati wa Licinius (308-324) sikukuu hiyo ilikuwa ikiadhimishwa bado tarehe 19 Desemba. (Taz. maandishi yaliyotajwa na Allan S. Hoey katika ukurasa 480 (rejeo 128) wa Official Policy towards Oriental Cults in the Roman Army, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association (70) 1939, pp 456-481).
Kutoka Roma, uliokuwa mji mkuu wa Dola la Roma, sherehe ya 25 Desemba ilienea kote katika Ukristo.

Wakristo wengi husheherekea tarehe 25 Desemba (Wakatoliki, Waprotestanti, sehemu ya Waorthodoksi). Kati ya Waorthodoksi kuna tarehe nyingine, hasa 6 Januari kutokana na tofauti katika kalenda 

Habari za Krismasi katika Korani

Korani pia ina habari za kuzaliwa kwake Yesu (nabii Isa).
Sura ya tatu (Al Imran, 42-47) ina habari za tangazo la malaika kwa Bikira Mariamu zinazofanana na Luka 1.
Sura ya 19 (Mariamu, 16-34) inarudia tangazo la malaika kwa Mariamu na inasimulia kuzaliwa kwake Yesu chini ya mti wa mtende, halafu majadiliano kati ya Mariamu na ndugu zake. Mtoto mchanga Yesu akaanza kusema wakati wa kuzaliwa akimtetea mama yake dhidi ya ndugu zake. 
makala hii fupi kupitia vyanzo mbalimbali imehaririwa na steven mruma..

Wednesday, December 22, 2010

CHRISTMASS INAKUJA JE WAJUA HISTORIA YAKE? KAMA ULIKUA BADO KUA NAMI IKO NJIANI



kwa ufupi sana hii ni sherehe ambayo huadhimishwa kila desemba 25 na inamana kua yesu kristo kwa wakristo amezaliwa...
Christmas
Christmas
Christmas decorations on display.
Also called Christ's Mass
Nativity
Noel
Feast of the Nativity
Observed by Christians
Many non-Christians[1]
Type Christian, cultural
Significance Traditional birthday of Jesus
Date December 25
January 6 (in Armenia)
January 7[2] (in a minority of Eastern Orthodox churches)
Observances Gift giving, church services, family and other social gatherings, symbolic decorating
Related to Annunciation, Advent, Epiphany, Baptism of the Lord
sasa subiria habari kamili
na steven..

MFAHAMU KWA UFUPI RAPA WA WEST COST ANAETIKISA HADI LEO SNOOP DOGGY


Cordozar Calvin Broadus, Jr
HAPA NI HISTORIA YAKE KWA UFUPI HASA ALIPOTOKEA

Snoop Doggy

Cordozar Calvin Broadus, Jr (amezaliwa, 20 Oktoba 1971) ni Rapa wa kimarekani na pia muigazaji wa filamu. Alipata umaarufu kama Snoop Dogg, mwanzoni walikuwa wakimuita Snoop Dogg Doggy.
SNOOP DOGGY

Akiwa anawakilisha kikosi cha West Coast Hip Hop, pamoja na mshirika wake wa karibu bwana Dr. Dre ambaye ndiye aliyesababisha Snoop kuwa hapo alipofikia. Snoop kuna misemo yake ambayo imezoleka sana midomoni mwa watu vile akisema 'fo' Shizzle, manizzle, akimanisha, kweli ndugu yangu, useme huo ulibuniwa na mwanamuziki mmoja wa huko huko nchini marekani maarufu kama Frank Smith & the Band, mnamo miaka ya 80 hivi

  Maisha ya Mwanzo

Snoop alizaliwa mjini Long Beach, California tar. 20 Oktoba 1971. Akiwa bwana mdogo alipata jina la Snoop ambalo alipewa na mama yake mzazi kama jina la utani kwakuwa alikuwa anapenda kutazama kipindi cha televisheni kilichokuwa kinaitwa "Peanuts", kipindi ambacho kiliegemea kwenye masuala ya "Ucheshi", likiwemo na jina fulani la Snoop Dogg.
Snoop ajiunga na shule ya Long Beach Polytechnic High School, na baadae akapelekwa jela kwa kujishughulisha na maswala ya uuzaji na utumiaji wa madawa ya kulevya. Snoop pia alikuwa mmoja wa wanachama wa kikundi kidogo cha kihuni kilichokuwa kinaongozwa na "Bow Keene Mundine" ndani ya Long Beach.
Jina la Kiraia
Mwanamuziki Snoop akiwa Mjini HawaiiCordozar Calvin Broadus, Jr
Jina la kisanii
Snoop Doggy Dogg
The D O Double G Bigg Snoop Dogg Tha Bigg Boss Dogg
Nchi
Alizaliwa
Aina ya muziki
Rap na Hip Hop
Kazi yake
Mwanamuziki, Muigizaji, Mtayarishaji
Miaka ya kazi
mn. 1992 -
Ameshirikiana na
Ala
Sauti, Gita,Kinanda,Kinakilishi
Kampuni
Death Row, Interscope, Universal, No Limit, Priority, TVT, EMI, Star Trak, Geffen, Doggystyle

Monday, December 20, 2010

kupatwa kwa mwezi na jua [solar and lunar eclipse] matukio ya kawaida sasa duniani

leo itatokea kupatwa kwa mwezi usiku na hili ni kutoka kwa watbiri wa hali ya hewa 

 katika habari za kitabiri leo jumatatu kutatokea kupatwa kwa mwezi na hii imenifanya nikumbushie matukio haya ambyo yalitabiriwa kama ndio dalili za mwisho wa dunia na hali hii ya kupatwa kwamwezi ni yakawaida kabisa hapa duniani...

Kupatwa kwa jua kunatokea wakati mwezi unafunika jua. Tokeo lake ni kupungua kwa jua hadi kutoonekana tena na kufika kwa giza wakati wa mchana. Muda wa kufunikwa kabisa ni dakika chache tu.  Misingi ya kupatwa kwa jua
Kupatwa kwa jua kunatokea kama dunia, mwezi na jua zinakaa kwenye mstari mmoja mnyoofu yaani wakati mwezi unapita kati ya dunia na jua. Katika hali hiyo kuna kivuli cha mwezi kwenye uso wa dunia. Kivuli hiki hakifuniki dunia yote. Kwa hiyo kupatwa kwa jua kunaonekana kwa watu wengi kama kupungua kwa mwanga wa jua             
Aina za kupatwa kwa jua
Kuna aina mbalimbali za kupatwa kwa jua.
  • kupatwa kabisa: jua lapotea kabisa kwa dakika chache. Hali hii yaonekana kwenye kanda nyembamba duniani kinapopita kitovu cha kivuli.
  • kupatwa kipete: mwezi huonekana mdogo kuloko jua. Kwa hiyo duara ya kung'aa ya jua ni kubwa kuliko duara ya mwezi na mwanga wa jua waonekana kama pete.
  • kupatwa kwa jua kisehemu: Katika eneo kubwa la kivuli cha kando watu hona upungufu wa mwanga; kiasi chake hutegemea umbali na kitovu cha kivuli. Wakitazama jua kwa filta kwa mfano kioo kilichopakwa dohani katika moshi ya mshumaa huwa wanaona sehemu ya duara ya jua imefunikwa. 
KUPATWA KWA MWEZI
H hutyokea pale dunia inapokua katikati ya jua na mwezi na kufanya mwezi ushindwe kuakisi mwanga kutoka kwenye jua ikumbukwe kua mwezi hupata ama huakisis mwanga wake kutoka kwenye jua sasa dunia inapokua katikati mwanga wa jua haufiki katika mwezi na kusababisha mwezi kua na giza na hii haichukui muda mrefu kisha hali huwa kama kawaida na matukio haya hutokea mara kwa mara sasa duniani na limekua kama jambo la kawaida kabisa

Thursday, December 16, 2010

UNDERSTAND 5 [FIVE] VALUE OF LIFE TO LEAD YOU LIFE WELL.

There are so many but today you have to learn only five main value of life

Economic approaches to valuation

The value of a statistical life is most commonly determined by looking at a person's willingness to pay or willingness to accept. Willingness to pay can be found by asking a person how much they would be willing to pay for good health outcomes (or to reduce bad health outcomes). It can also be determined by looking at a person's purchasing choices. An example would be looking at how much more a person would be willing to pay for airbags in his/her car. To determine willingness to pay one would look at the change in the price that occurs because of the added airbags and divide that by the change in the risk of death. Willingness to accept is determined by looking at how much more you would have to pay someone to put them in a position where they are more likely to have bad health outcomes. This could be seen by changing a person's location from a less polluted city to a more polluted city and looking at the difference in wages between the two areas.

An Alternative Model

is better to die when you trying.
An opposing view to the "willingness to pay" model follows. For all practical purposes, a "willingness to pay" model assumes that each individual is able to pay in cash or trade the pledged monetary value of what they are willing to pay for the life in question. However, a "willingness to pay" model is not useful in estimating the cost of a human life for minors, terminally sick people, incarcerated people, and more importantly in the event of a terrorist or environmental hazard. This is because the "willingness to pay" model accepts a subjective appraisal of a human life made by the person who was given a hypothetical situation which implies that they have a greater amount of financial resources than they do in actuality, because the calculation is not based on their actual ability to pay at the moment, but what they think they would pay and some normalization and averaging of their spending habits over a period of time.
Additionally, this method is not applicable when estimating anyone under 18, because clearly they do not meet the criteria required by the "willingness to pay" model.

A practical example of a baseline model

remember time is very importance to you dont waste a time
This example monetizes the life of an 18 year old individual which for the purposes of this exercise shall be referred to as a Consumer Unit (CU). Assumptions and known data:
  1. Family Income
  2. Family Size
  3. Limited educational background data
The CU is an 18 year old non college bound individual who was produced in a two income household without siblings. The combined family income over the lifetime of the CU is inflation and tax bracket adjusted. The income is divided by the total number of family members (3) which yields the CU’s estimated Monetary Value. Future value is not considered since this method assigns a zero value if the CU is damaged or destroyed.

Uses

how do you use you income.
Since resources are finite, tradeoffs are inevitable, even regarding potential life-or-death decisions. The assignment of a value to individual life is one possible approach to attempting to make rational decisions about these tradeoffs.
When deciding on the appropriate level of healthcare spending, a typical method is to equate the marginal cost of the healthcare to the marginal benefits received. In order to obtain a marginal benefit amount, some estimation of the dollar value of life is required.
In risk management activities such as in the areas of workplace safety, and insurance, it is often useful to put a precise economic value on a given life. There can be no such thing as a perfectly safe or risk free system—one can always make a system safer by spending more money. However, there are diminishing returns involved.
In transportation modes it is very important to consider the external cost that is paid by the society but is not calculated, for making it more sustainable.

Criticisms

There are also intergenerational aspects to the value of life. Some economists calculate social discount rates based on the interest rates prevalent in financial markets. The higher the social discount rate, the more future generations are devalued relative to the current generation.
The anti-globalization movement objects to the obvious disparity between the value assigned to life in developed nations versus developing nations—most particularly as reflected in World Bank, WTO, and IMF decisions. They point to such numbers as the IPCC assumption that a developed nation can pay fifteen times more than a developing nation to avert a death due to climate change, as evidence of systematic neglect of the value of statistical life in the poorer South, as opposed to the more developed North. Some also fear that more standard global value of life mechanisms could have consequences for the working people in the developed nations.
you dont live with bad luck try




A few also debate as to whether animal life deserves to have a value assigned to it, such as in the field of biodiversity. A moral argument associated with this is the Great Ape personhood debate, which has become especially poignant since the recent advocacy by some scientists to move the two chimpanzee species into the genus Homo (previously it was considered a hominid).

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION [TOHARA] NA MADHARA YAKE KWA WANAWAKE

WATOTO WAKIKE WAKIFANYIWA UKEKETAJI KWA WAKATI MMOJA JAMBO AMBALO HUHATARISHA MAISHA YAO..
Tohara 
ni upasuaji mdogo wa kukata na kuondoa govi, yaani ngozi inayofunika kichwa cha uume.
MTOTO ALIEKOSA RAHA NA KUATHIRIKA KISAIKOLOJIA KUTOKANA NA TOHARA
Wakati mwingine ukeketaji huitwa "tohara ya mwanamke".
Inaweza kufanyika katika umri wowote na kwa sababu za kiutamaduni, za kidini au za kiganga. Mara nyingi desturi za kutahiri zinachanganya sababu za kidini na kiutamaduni. Kwa mfano, Waislamu wa Misri huamini ya kwamba wanatahiri watoto wao kama amri ya kidini lakini Wakristo Wakopti wa nchi hiyo hutahiri watoto vilevile. Ukweli ni kwamba tohara inajulikana ilikuwa desturi ya Wamisri tangu kale.
Tohara inafanyika hasa mara baada ya kuzaliwa kwa mtoto au wakati wa kubalehe.
HIZI NI KAMPENI ZA UKEKETAJI AMBAO UNAPEWA KIPAUMBELE NA JAMII NYINGI SAHA ZA VIJIJINI
Wanawake na wasichana wanaokaribia milioni 140 duniani kote wamefanyiwa FGM, kulingana na Shirika la Afya Ulimwenguni (WHO). Pia linakadiria kuwa wanawake wapatao 8,000 wako katika hatari ya kufanyiwa tohara kila siku.
Utekelezaji wa kitendo hicho unatofautiana kulingana na sababu kama vile historia ya kikabila ya mwathirika na mahali jumuiya yake inapatikana. Wasichana wa umri wa chini ya mwaka mmoja wanafanyiwa tohara na inatumika zaidi kwa wasichana wa hadi umri wa miaka 15.
Ikiwa inafanyika katika kile ambacho mashirika ya haki za binadamu inaita ‘’mazingira ya kutisha, mara nyingi inawahusisha wasichana waliotiwa hofu wakati waendeshaji wa tohara wa jadi wanatumia vitu vyenye ncha kali kama vile visu, viwembe au glasi zilizovunjika kufanyia tohara.
Kumekuwa na ushahidi kuwa madaktari na wafanyakazi wa hospitali wanashiriki katika baadhi ya matukio.
Kuna aina nne ya tohara kama ilivyogawanywa na WHO. Waris Dirie, mwanamitindo wa zamani wa Somalia ambaye pia ni mwathirika wa FGM na ambaye anaendesha shirika lake la kufanya kampeni dhidi ya FGM lenye makao yake Vienna, Austria, alisema kuwa pamoja na kwamba sheria zimepitishwa barani Ulaya kujaribu na kukomesha FGM mila hiyo inaenea kwa siri katika jumuiya.
Waris Dirie, mwanamitindo wa zamani wa Somalia ambaye pia ni mwathirika wa FGM na ambaye anaendesha shirika lake la kufanya kampeni dhidi ya FGM lenye makao yake Vienna, Austria, alisema kuwa pamoja na kwamba sheria zimepitishwa barani Ulaya kujaribu na kukomesha FGM mila hiyo inaenea kwa siri katika jumuiya.
HAYA NI MADHARA YA UKEKETAJI
1.INATEGEMEA SANA NA AINA YA UKEKETAJI ILA KIKAWAIDA KABISA MWANAMKE HAWEZI KUSIKIA RAHA WAKATI WA KUJAMIIANA
2. KAMA HAITOSHI TOHARA HIYO HAIFANYI KITAALAM NA INAWEZA KUSABABISHA DAMU NYINGI KUVUJA NA KUHATARISHA MAISHA YA MSICHANA
3. NI RAHISI SANA KUPATA MAGONJWA YA ZINAA KAMA UKIMWI NK, KWASABABU VIFAA VINATUMIKA KWA MTU ZAIDI YA MMOJA NA KWA WAKATI MMOJA AMA MDA MFUPI
4.INASABABISHA MATATIZO YA KISAIKOLOJIA MTOTO WA KIKE NA HII INAMPUNGUZIA FURSA YA KUFANYA VIZURI KATIKA MASOMO YA KE NK...
VIFAA VYA TOHARA HIYO HARAMU
       YAPO MENGI SNA KUHUSU KMAKALA HII KWA LEO NAISHIA HAPO NA WALE WALIONITUMIA EMAIL ZAO  NA MASWALI YAO NADHANI LEO NIMEJIBU YOTE KUPITIA MAIL ZAO
  SAY STEVEN ...




TCHAO..                                                      BAADHI YA PICHA ZIKO KIDOGO NJE YA MAADILI YA KITANZNIA NA KIAFRIKA KWA UJIMLA ILA TUVUMILIE ILI TUSOME...

Tuesday, December 14, 2010

HUYU NDIE HAYATI REMMY ONGALA NGULI WA MUZIKI AFRIKA NA DUNIA [ALIPOTOKA NA ALIPOFIKIA TAMATI]




Remmy Ongala (1947 - Desemba 13 2010) alikuwa mwanamuziki nchini Tanzania mwenye asili ya Zaire. Alizaliwa na jina la kiraia la Ramadhani Mtoro Ongala katika jimbo la Kivu la Kongo ya Kibelgiji.
Remmy Ongala pamoja na bendi yake ya Super Matimila, ni mashuhuri sana nchini Tanzania, na wamepiga muziki mara nyingi katika nchi za Ulaya na Marekani. Remmy Ongala kwa asili anatoka Zaire. Akiwa na umri wa miaka tisa mama yake alifariki, hivyo ikimbidi achukue jukumu la kutunza wadogo zake.
Akiwa na umri wa miaka 17, alikuwa muimbaji na mpiga ngoma katika bendi ya vijana ya Bantu Success. Hii haikuwa na maana kwa familia yake, hivyo Remmy ilimbidi atoke katika bendi. Miaka miwili baadaye, alijishughulisha tena na muziki. Alijiunga na vikundi mbalimbali vya bendi za muziki akiwa mpiga gitaa, baadhi yake zilikuwa Micky Jazz ya Zaire na Grand Mike Jazz ya huko Uganda. Mwaka 1978 alihamia Tanzania na kujiunga na bendi ya mjomba wake Ochestre Makassy ya jijini Dar es Salaam.
Mwaka 1981 alijiunga na bendi ya Matimila, ikiwa na wanamuziki 18 na ikimilikiwa na mfanya biashara mmoja. Baadaye alianzisha bendi yake ya Super Matimila na kuendeleza mtindo wa kutumia magitaa 3, besi, ngoma na tarumbeta aina ya saksafoni. Remmy Ongala alipiga muziki wake kwa mtindo wa Soukous, katika maumbile mapya kabisa kwa kutumia asili na jadi ya kitanzania. Akiimba kwa kiswahili, ushairi wake mzuri una tunzi zinazohusu siasa na pia maisha ya mtu wa kawaida. Kwa ajili ya uimbaji na utunzi wake wa kuliwaza, Remmy anaitwa “Dokta” na ni mtu anayejulikana sana katika sehemu za Sinza ambazo ni jirani na anakoishi yeye na mkewe mwingereza na watoto wao 5 na kasuku mmoja, nje kidogo ya jiji la Dar es Salaam.

WASIFU WAKE KWA UJUMLA
Jina la kuzaliwa Ramadhani Mtoro Ongala
Amezaliwa 1947
Asili yake Mzaire, Mtanzania
Amekufa 2010
Kazi yake Mwimbaji
Ala Sauti, Gitaa
Miaka ya kazi mn. 1965 -
Ameshirikiana na Virunga, Diblo Dibala, Orchestra Super Mazembe, Orchestra Makassy
japo kwa ufupi ila kamwe hatasahaulika hayati remmy ongala lakini pia ikumbukwe kuwa remmy aliwahi kuokoka na alitumikia kipindi chake cha kuokoka kwa kuhubiri injili na kuimba nyimbo nyingi za injili mpaka aliporipotiwa kufariki dunia tar 13/12/2010 mungu ailaze roho yake mahali pema pepeni
amina..
na steven mruma kwa msaada wa vyombo vingine vya habari duniani...

Monday, December 13, 2010

UFAHAMU UGONJWA WA TONSILS AMBAO UNAWAPATA WATU WENGI NA HAWAIJUI UNDANI WAKE

ni makala ya kingereza na unaweza ukaitafsiri ukipenda kwa kuielewa zaidi


 Tonsils and Tonsillectomy
What are tonsils and adenoids?  The tonsils are two clumps of tissue, on either side of the throat, embedded in a pocket at the side of the palate (roof of the mouth).  The lower edge of each tonsil is beside the tongue...way in the back of the throat.  The adenoids are a single clump of tissue in the back of the nose (nasopharynx).  They are located (in the adult) on the back wall of the throat (pharynx)...about one inch above the uvula (the little teardrop shaped piece of tissue that hangs down in the middle of the soft palate). 
What function do they serve?   Aren't they important?  The tonsils and the adenoids are mostly composed of lymphoid tissue, which is found thoughout the gastointestinal tract and on the base of the tongue.  Lymphoid tissue is composed of lymphocytes...which are mostly involved in antibody production.  Since we generally consider antibody production to be a good thing, many studies have been performed to try to clarify the importance of the tonsils.   There seems to be no adverse effect on the immune status or health of patients who have had them removed.  Any noticable effect has generally been positive. It appears that the tonsils and adenoids were not "designed" to effectively handle the multitude of viral infections that occur in children in an urban population.  Rather, the immune system, including the tonsils and adenoids, developed during a era where the child was rarely exposed to a large number of other people and the germs they carried.  It may also be that these organs are relatively more important in dealing with certain types of infections, such as worms or other parasites, that are relatively uncommon in today's society.  It is clear that in many cases, the tonsils and/or the adenoids become "dysfunctional" and are more of a liability than an asset.
How are tonsils removed?   There are many techniques used for tonsillectomy.  General anesthesia is usually employed; but it is possible to perform tonsillectomy with sedation and local anesthesia.  In the United States, some degree of electrocautery assisted dissection is most commonly employed, because of the ability to rapidly stop bleeding.  Some surgeons use very little cautery...with more bleeding, but with less burned tissue.   Use of lasers has been studied and considered by most surgeons.  We feel that laser use is primarily a marketing gimmack at this point, since it offers no apparent advantage over certain cautery techniques, and has some very real hazards and extra costs.
 and this is the type of tonsils you have to know...
1.Blockage of the throat...they are too big.
2.Chronic and recurrent tonsillitis...sore throats
3.White debris in the tonsils..."chronic cryptic tonsillitis".
4.Unusual enlargement or appearance.

Saturday, December 11, 2010

UMUHIMU WA MAJI KATIKA MIILI YETU LAKINI BADO TUNALALAMIKA MAGONJWA MENGI WAKATI DAWA TUNAYO NA NI RAHISI [MAJI]

Maji ni hitajio la dharura kwa afya zetu, kwani asilimia 60 ya uzito wako ni maji na kila mfumo wa mwili wako hutegemea maji ili kufanya kazi zake. Ukosefu wa maji mwilini humfanya mtu akaukiwe na maji au dehydration, hali ambayo hutokea pale mtu asipokuwa na maji ya kutosha mwilini ya kuuwezesha mwili wake kufanya kazi zake za kawaida. Hata katika upungufu mdogo wa maji mwilini, wakati ambapo asilimia 1 hadi 2 ya uzito wa mwili inapopungua, huweza kumfanya mtu akose nguvu na ajisike amechoka. Miongoni mwa dalili za upungufu wa maji mwilini ni: • Kukihi kiu sana • Uchovu • Kichwa kuuma • Mdomo kukauka • Kukosa mkojo au kiasi cha mkojo kuwa kidogo. • Udhaifu wa misuli • Kuhisi kizunguzunguNi muhimu kujua kwamba mwili hupoteza maji kila siku kwa kutokwa na jasho, iwe jasho hilo umelihisi au haukulihisi, kutoa pumzi nje (exhaling), kukojoa na harakati ya tumbo. (bowel movement).
Ili mwili wako uweze kufanya kazi vizuri unahitajia kurudisha maji hayo mwilini kwa kunywa vinywaji mbalimbali na vyakula vyenye maji.
Wataalamu wengi wanakubaliana kuwa mwanadamu anahitajia kunywa vikombe 8 vya maji kwa siku, ili kufidia maji yanayopotae mwilini. Hata hivyo wengine wanashauri kwamba, wanaume wanywe vikombe 13 vya maji kwa siku na wanawake vikombe 8 vya maji, na hiyo ni kutokana na tofauti ya miili yao. Tunashauriwa kuwa badala ya kunywa maji kiholela tunywe kwa mpangilio maalum kwa siku, ili kusaidia vyema katika kazi za mwili. * Tunashauriwa kunywa vikombe viwili vya maji asubuhi pindi tunapoamka, kwani husaidia kuamsha viungo vya ndani ya mwili.* Tunashauri tunywe kikombe kikoja cha maji dakika 30 kabla ya mlo, kwani husaidia kupata choo vizuri.* Tunashuariwa tunywe kikombe kimoja cha maji kabla ya kwenda kuoga, husaisia kupunguza shikizo la damu.* Na tunashauriwa kunywa kikombe kimoja cha maji kabla ya kulala kwani kufanya hivyo huzuia shinikizo la moyo.

Thursday, December 9, 2010

TANZANIA INDEPENDENT AND SHORT HISTORY OF TANZANIA

Tanzania is home to some of the oldest human settlements unearthed by archaeologists, including fossils of early humans found in and around Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, an area often referred to as "The Cradle of Mankind". These fossils include Paranthropus bones thought to be over 2 million years old, and the oldest known footprints of the immediate ancestors of humans, the Laetoli footprints, estimated to be about 3.6 million years old.[1]
Reaching back about 10,000 years, Tanzania is believed to have been populated by hunter-gatherer communities, probably Khoisan speaking people. Between three and six thousand years ago, they were joined by Cushitic-speaking people who came from the north, into which the Khoisan peoples were slowly absorbed. Cushitic peoples introduced basic techniques of agriculture, food production, and later, cattle farming.[2]
About 2000 years ago, Bantu-speaking people began to arrive from western Africa in a series of migrations. These groups brought and developed ironworking skills and new ideas of social and political organization. They absorbed many of the Cushitic peoples who had preceded them, as well as most of the remaining Khoisan-speaking inhabitants. Later, Nilotic pastoralists arrived, and continued to immigrate into the area through to the 18th century.[2][3]] Early Coastal History
Travellers and merchants from the Persian Gulf and Western India have visited the East African coast since early in the first millennium CE. Greek texts such as the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and Ptolomey's Geography list a string of market places (emporia) along the coast. Finds of Roman-era coins along the coast confirm the existence of trade, and Ptolomey's Geography refers to a town of Rhapta as "metropolis" of a political entity called Azania. Archaeologists have not yet succeeded in identifying the location of Rhapta, though many believe it lies deeply buried in the silt of the delta of the Rufiji River. A long documentary silence follows these ancient texts, and it is not until Arab geographical treatises were written about the coast that our information resumes.

Remains of those towns' material culture demonstrate that they arose from indigenous roots, not from foreign settlement. And the language that was spoken in them, Swahili (now Tanzania's national language), is a member of the Bantu language family that spread from the northern Kenya coast well before significant Arab presence was felt in the region. By the beginning of the second millennium CE the Swahili towns conducted a thriving trade that linked Africans in the interior with trade partners throughout the Indian Ocean. From c. 1200 to 1500 CE, the town of Kilwa, on Tanzania's southern coast, was perhaps the wealthiest and most powerful of these towns, presiding over what some scholars consider the "golden age" of Swahili civilization. In the early 14th century, Ibn Battuta, a Berber traveller from North Africa, visited Kilwa and proclaimed it one of the best cities in the world. Islam was practised on the Swahili coast as early as the eighth or ninth century CE.[4]
In 1498, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama became the first known European to reach the East African coast; he stayed for 32 days.[5] In 1505 the Portuguese captured the island of Zanzibar.[6] Portuguese control lasted until the early 18th century, when Arabs from Oman established a foothold in the region. Assisted by Omani Arabs, the indigenous coastal dwellers succeeded in driving the Portuguese from the area north of the Ruvuma River by the early 18th century. Claiming the coastal strip, Omani Sultan Seyyid Said moved his capital to Zanzibar City in 1840.[6] He focused on the island and developed trade routes that stretched as far as Lake Tanganyika and Central Africa. During this time, Zanzibar became the centre for the Arab slave trade. Due to the Arab and Persian domination at this later time, many Europeans misconstrued the nature of Swahili civilization as a product of Arab colonization. However, this misunderstanding has begun to dissipate over the past 40 years as Swahili civilization is becoming recognized as principally African in origin

Monday, December 6, 2010

WHAT IS REALLY LOVE IN OUR RELATIONSHIP WE NEED TO KNOW MORE..

Every day we talk about love its magic topic? may be yes because love and relationship creat rhe world , but insteady of this what is realy love?????????
TRUE LOVE IS THE SEX????
no no no but may be you want to made sex as your kind of loving yet
Numerous studies of experts in the matters of relationships, show that many who are in relationships are unable to tolerate the continued existence in a relationship without sex.. Hata hivyo tafiti hizo za uhakika zinaeleza kwamba baada ya wapenzi kufanya ngono, ile hamu ya kuendelea kuwa na uhusinao hupungua! However, these studies indicate that certain couples That is caused by racial or language, and have nothing to declare himself not to know the 'partner' her.Wengi hulia baada ya kujikuta wakiingia katika mkumbo huu. Many find themselves crying after coming into this .Just ask yourself, as is love, why he will cling to you soon??? 
There are too many things to do instead of sex, you have no reason to give priority to sex when there are many other things you can do to make your will permanently continued daily.
SEX WHEN YOU CAN DO?
Basically the issue of sex has no principles, no specific time to start having sex with your partner.Sex is just a feeling, and it is better if these feelings zikaja at one time between you and the man you love..Sports psychology experts, they suggest that couples should not participate unless they act when they understand each other enough, especially health testing for sexually transmitted diseases, especially AIDS yamezagaa every corner of the world./In addition, the issue of sex is halikwepeki if you allow you to meet two cool parts
The basic thing is to settle with ourselves, do not have sex as part of sex..
Recognize that sex is something else and something else will, even if they decide to participate in the act, you know that you yourselvesna kisitumike kama kiburudisho tu.. sometime you have to avoid vijizawadi [gifts] like  fruits, cloth, shopping etc hii itakupelekea kushindwa kukataaa kwa urahisi and can make you fall in danger of sex [ KWA HERUFI KUBWA KAMA MSISITIZO] SEX IS LIKE BAZOKA AT FIRST IS SO SWEET BUT ATB A TIME THE SWEET DISAPPER AND FINALY UTAMU KWISHA KAZI  MNACHOKANA HARAKA .. MWISHO NINAYOMENGI SNA NA SIWEZI KUANDIKA YOTE BUT YOU MAY CONTACT ME
FOR MORE STORIES
STEVEN M..

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